Exophtalmus is a condition where the animal's eyeball is protruding from the socket.
Once the eyeball has protruded to a certain extent, the eyelids can no longer close and protect the eye, and leave it dangerously exposed to the outside. Because the eye is removed from its socket, the tear film that surrounds the eye normally cannot be produced over the cornea, and as a result, the eye is exposed to a harmful degree of dryness. The white of the eye appears blood-shot and swollen. Invariably, the cornea becomes inflamed and may develop ulcers. If the eye is not reset quickly, it may suffer critical damage.
The most common cause for exophtalmus is bleeding into the eyeball, after an accident, trauma, or fight. In general, processes and changes to the conditions behind the eyeball (i.e. the growth of a tumor) can lead to a reduction of space in the eye socket, and result in the eye being pushed out of the eye socket, resulting in exophtalmus.
Treatment for exophthalmus is aimed at removing any underlying causes of stress on the eyeball and disturbances to conditions in the eye socket. In cases where the eye has been severely damaged, surgical removal may be the only option.
If your animal is showing symptoms of exophthalmus, consult a vet clinic immediately. Try to calm your dog as much as possible in order to prevent further injury to the eye.